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General Education English Lecture Hand-outs Board Licensure for Professional Teachers 1 | Page I. BASIC GRAMMARand ACADEMIC WRITING Grammar refers to the rules for speaking or writing a particular language, or an analysis of the rules of a particular aspect of language. 1. Lexicon 1.1. Diction: Lexical Accuracy Problems with diction (or lexical accuracy) can easily be solved by simply referring to current international dictionaries. If you cannot define the term, nor give a synonym for it, then you must be using the word based on how you have been exposed to it, and your usage might be erroneous. Learn to read the dictionary for the different meanings of words (or word forms) in different classifications. For example, read entries for such simple words as make or set , and appreciate their different uses. 1.1.1. Lexical Change Be open to changes in the form and use of English words. For formal written communication, use international newsmagazines and reputable journals as models. 1.1.2. Lexical Variation Some words may have similar meanings or the same meaning, sometimes even the same source, but tend to be used in particular English dialects. Especially confusing to Filipino users of English are principally British forms, e.g.: elevator, French fries, TV (American) lift, chips, telly (British). 1.1.3. Homophonous and Homographic Words Differentiate between homophonous (same pronunciation) and homographic (same spelling) words. If you have to use a word which sounds or looks like another word (or, put another way, a word form which has several meanings), make sure that the context of its use clearly and firmly establishes the meaning you are using it for, e.g.: bore 1. She bore a child out. 2. Her boyfriend was such a bore that she left him. 3. Termites bore holes as they eat their way through wood. 1.1.4. Word Meanings Differentiate between words which are very closely related in meaning to each other, e.g.: advance vs. advanced, astonish vs. surprise, consent vs. assent, etc. 1.1.5. Explicitness Use the right word, E.g. The blank was not legibly written (incorrect) vs. The entry on the blank was not legibly written. 1.1.6. Filipinisms and Slang Use Filipinisms only when your target readers are familiar with them fellow Filipinos, or other nationals who have become familiar with Filipino English, e.g.: ballpen (ballpoint pen), blow-out (a treat), plastic (hypocritical), etc. Be careful of using English words or phrases that seem to be the source of a Filipinism. Some of these do not have the same meaning as the Filipino word or phrase, especially those used in slang, e.g.: papa (English - dad) vs. papa (Filipino slang - boyfriend, especially of gays), stand by (English stick by) vs. istambay (Filipino slang hang around). 1.1.7. Loan Words Use loan words in English correctly. Watch out for their spelling; the diacritical marks are sometimes omitted in an English text. For the pronunciation of loan words, check the dictionary. French Word: Latin Terms: (ad hoc, ad interim, alter ego, bona fide, cum laude, in toto, mea ...

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