ODB - Soc Sci (Gov History) (1)
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DR. CARL E. BALITA REVIEW CENTER TEL. NO. 735-4098/7350740 - 1 - SPANISH GOVERNMENT Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippines on March 16, 1521 and consummated by the conquest of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi forty-five years later. On 1898, the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States by virtue of the Treaty of Paris. From 1565 to 1891, the Philippines was governed by the King of Spain through Mexico. From 1821-1837 Mexico gained its independence so the Philippines was then ruled directly by Spain through the Council of Indies. In 1837, legislation for the Philippines was temporarily performed by the Council of Ministries. The Ministry of Ultramar exercised general powers of supervision over Philippine affairs. Barangays were consolidated into pueblos (towns) and headed by a gobernadorcillo popularly called as Capitan and the towns into provinces headed by a Gobernador who represents the Governor-General in the province. In 1565, Cebu was established as the first city, followed by Manila in 1571. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi was the first Governor-General and the last was Gen. Diego delos Rios. REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT On August 26, 1896, The Katipunan which was a secret society that precipitated the Philippine revolution against Spain. Andres Bonifacio organized The Katipunan. On November 1, 1897, a republic was established by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in Biak-na-Bato. The Biak-na-Bato Republic declared the separation of the Philippines from Spain. On May 24, 1898, Gen. Aguinaldo established the Dictatorial Government following the outbreak of the Spanish-American war on April 25, 1898. The proclamation of Philippine independence was held at Kawit, Cavite in June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Gen. Aguinaldo established the Revolutionary Government replacing the dictatorial government. On September 15, 1898, a revolutionary congress of Filipino representatives met in Malolos, Bulacan and framed the so-called Malolos Constitution. The Constitution established a free and independent Philippine Republic which was inaugurated on January 23, 1899, with Gen. Aguinaldo as President. In February 1899, the United States annexed the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American War. In April 1901, Gen. Aguinaldo was captured. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT On April 14, 1898 the American military rule in the Philippines. The three American Military Governors were: Gen. Wesley Meritt, Ge. Elwell Otis and the last was Gen. Arthur McArthur. On July 4, 1901, a civil government was inaugurated headed by a Civil Governor. On February 6, 1905, the title was changed to Governor-General who exercised legislative powers. The Philippine Commission acted as the upper house of the legislative branch with the Philippine Assembly serving as the lower house. In 1916, with the passage of the Jones Law, the two bodies gave way to the Philippine legislature. The Philippines was represented in the United States by two Resident Commissioners who were elected by the Philippine legislature. The first Civil Governor was Judge William H. Taft (1901-1903). Followed by Luke F. Wright (1904-1906) who was the first American to enjoy the title of Governor-General of the Philippines. The last Governor-General was Frank Murphy (1933-1935) who was also ...