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General Education: Social Science Philippine History Much of the Philippine History tells of the libertarian struggle of the Filipino against colonial rule; Spaniards, Americans and Japanese. But even after the Filipinos gained independence, the influence on our culture of the different colonial rulers is very strong that the present Filipinos is still searching for his real identity. A. Pre-colonial Philippines Barangay was the socio-political unit with Datu as chieftain. Social classes existed: nobles, freeman and slaves (Aliping namamahay and aliping sagui-guilid). The archipelago was divided into barangays, each barangay comprising of 40 100 families. Contacts with other nations such as Chinese, Indians and Malays existed. Arab influence Islam religion was brought by Malays. B. Hispanization of the Philippines Magellan led an expedition for Spain to Molucas by sailing west. Such expedition brought him to a group of islands which they called Archipelago of St. Lazaruz (Later renamed Philippines after King Philip II of Spain). They anchored on Homonhon and later sailed to an islet south of Leyte where they had the first mass on March 31, 1521 celebrated by Fr. Pedro de Valderrama. While Magellan was killed on April 28 in a battle with Mactan chieftain lapu-Lapu, nevertheless his expedition paved the way for the eventual colonization of the Philippines by Spain. Other Spanish Expeditions in the Philippines: Loaysa Expedition (1525-26) by Father Juan Garcia Jofre De Loaysa Cabot Expedition (1526-1530) by Sebastian Cabot Sayavedra Expedition (1527-1528) by Alvaro de Sayavedra Villalobos Expedition (1542-1546) by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos - Reached Mindanaw in Februay 1543 but the natives refused to have any dealing with them. He named the islands of Samar and Leyte Felipinas in honor of Prince Phillip of Spain who later bacame King Phillip II. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived to establish a permanent settlement in the Philippine Island. He concluded blood compact with Sikatuna, chief of Bohol, then a treaty of friendship with Rajah Tupas of Cebu where the first Spanish settlement (San Miguel) was established. It was later renamed Santissismo Nombre de Jesus. Further colonization was made in Visayas and up north. De Goite fortified manila which was under ASulayman, a Muslim chieftain. In 1571, Legazpi established Manila as the capital of the Philippines. 1. Political Changes i. Government was centralized. For 250 years, Philippines was administered through the Council of Indies which transmitted to the Governor General of the Philippines the royal decree that served as guide in the administration of the colony. ii. Provincial governments started with encomiendas which were rewards given by the Spaniards who helped in the pacification of the country. Encomenderos were empowered to collect taxes, protect and convert natives to Catholicism. Due to abuses perpetrated by encomenderos, encomiendas were abolished and replaced by a system of provincial governments: Provinces are called Alcaldia headed by Alcalde Mayor for pacified areas and Corregimentos headed by Corregidors for unpacified areas. Cities are called Ayuntamiento headed by two alcalde Towns are called Pueblos headed by Gobernadorcillo Barangays were retained and ...

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